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Adherencia a la vacunación COVID-19 en profesionales sanitarios: revisión exploratoria

Resumen

Introducción: Revisar la literatura científica relacionada con la adherencia a la vacunación COVID-19 entre los profesionales sanitarios y explorar las barreras y facilitadores que inclinan la balanza hacia la aceptación o hacia la vacilación de la vacunación contra la COVID-19.

Métodos: Revisión exploratoria de los artículos recuperados en la base de datos bibliográfica MEDLINE (vía PubMed) hasta marzo de 2022. La ecuación de búsqueda se formuló mediante los descriptores “Occupational Groups”, “Vaccination”, “Coronavirus Infections”, “COVID-19 Vaccines” y “Treatment Adherence and Compliance”, utilizando también los Entry Terms relacionados y los filtros: «Humans» y «Adult: 19+ years». Para conocer el nivel de evidencia y su grado de recomendación se usaron las recomendaciones SIGN.

Resultados: De las 135 referencias recuperadas, tras aplicar los criterios de inclusión y exclusión, se seleccionaron 27 artículos: 26 estudios descriptivos transversales y 1 estudio cualitativo. En 17 (62,96%) artículos se midió la aceptación, cuyos datos recopilados mostraron una aceptación moderada tomando como valor conforme un 70% de aceptación para frenar la pandemia por COVID-19. Y en 21 (77,78%) artículos que cuantificaron la vacilación se observaron valores de reticencia elevados, pero que, a largo plazo, seguían una tendencia a la baja. Además, se recopilaron las principales barreras para la vacunación contra la COVID-19, las cuales eran: preocupaciones acerca de la seguridad, eficacia, rápido desarrollo de las vacunas contra la COVID-19 y falta de información y confianza en ellas y los principales facilitadores: sexo masculino, haber sido vacunado anteriormente contra la gripe, ser médico, enfermero o trabajos afines en los que se tiene contacto con los pacientes.

Conclusiones: Se recomienda mejorar la información, comunicación y la formación de los profesionales sanitarios debido a ser los asesores más fiables y los que más influyen en las decisiones de vacunación de la población general.

Palabras clave

Grupos Profesionales; Vacunación; Infecciones por Coronavirus; vacuna COVID-19; Cumplimiento y Adherencia al Tratamiento; Personal de salud.

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Citas

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